Definitions and Terminology

Please note that in an effort to maintain consistency, the following terminology and definitions have been adopted from the Intervenor Services Human Resources Strategy (ISHRS) and from the Canadian Deafblind Association National Chapter.


Acquisition

The process of gaining new knowledge or skills for oneself

CDBA National Glossary: Canadian Competency Framework
http://www.cdbanational.com/?page_id=190

Affect

(noun) The expression or observation of an emotional response through the individual’s body language, demeanor, muscle tone, etc.

CDBA National Glossary: Canadian Competency Framework
http://www.cdbanational.com/?page_id=190

Anticipation

(as part of Anticipation; Motivation; Communication; Confirmation) Realization or understanding that something is going to happen in the immediate or distant future.

CDBA National Glossary: Canadian Competency Framework
http://www.cdbanational.com/?page_id=190

Acquired Deafblindness

Acquired deafblindness is a description applied to people who experience both vision and hearing loss later in life.  Losses may occur at separate times or may occur simultaneously.  They may also be progressive.

 Intervenor Services Human Resources Strategy Glossary of Terms
http://intervenorservices.com/index.php/what-we-do/glossary-of-terms

American Sign Language (ASL)

The sign language used in North America. A highly visual language with its own syntax and grammar.

Intervenor Services Human Resources Strategy Glossary of Terms
http://intervenorservices.com/index.php/what-we-do/glossary-of-terms

American Sign Language (ASL) – English Interpreters

American Sign Language (ASL) – English Interpreters facilitate communication between Deaf and hearing people.

Intervenor Services Human Resources Strategy Glossary of Terms
http://intervenorservices.com/index.php/what-we-do/glossary-of-terms

American Sign Language (ASL) – Tactile

Tactile American Sign Language - The person who is deaf-blind receives communication with his/her hands resting on another individual's hand while the message is being signed.

Intervenor Services Human Resources Strategy Glossary of Terms
http://intervenorservices.com/index.php/what-we-do/glossary-of-terms

Adapted ASL

ASL can be adapted to meet the specific visual needs of individuals who are deafblind. Adapted ASL generally requires a restricted signing space, which may affect sign location and movement. Information is usually signed with one dominant hand, and may include tactile signs and fingerspelling. Adapted ASL also requires an awareness of potential visual limitations in the environment. For example, when the lighting changes in a room, the individual who is deafblind may no longer be able to see signs in a restricted sign space and prefer to receive tactile ASL. 

Intervenor Services Human Resources Strategy Glossary of Terms
http://intervenorservices.com/index.php/what-we-do/glossary-of-terms

Braille

This is an alternative format for people who are blind or deafblind. Braille is a tactile system of raised dots representing letters or a combination of letters of the alphabet. Braille is produced using Braille transcription software.

Intervenor Services Human Resources Strategy Glossary of Terms
http://intervenorservices.com/index.php/what-we-do/glossary-of-terms

Co-creation

(of movement) A continuous and mutual process in which the Intervenor and consumer dynamically create the interaction and communication together

CDBA National Glossary: Canadian Competency Framework
http://www.cdbanational.com/?page_id=190

Communication

(as part of Anticipation; Motivation; Communication; Confirmation) The sharing of information with the learner and provision of opportunities for the learner to be expressive

CDBA National Glossary: Canadian Competency Framework
http://www.cdbanational.com/?page_id=190

Communication Partner

Every person who interacts with a person who is deafblind is a communication partner

CDBA National Glossary: Canadian Competency Framework
http://www.cdbanational.com/?page_id=190

Communicator

A Communicator provides sign language, interpreting, and/or communicator services, where required, for Deaf adults who have a developmental delay, mental health issues and/or low language skills.  The communication will match the language level of the individual.

Intervenor Services Human Resources Strategy Glossary of Terms
http://intervenorservices.com/index.php/what-we-do/glossary-of-terms

Confirmation

(as part of Anticipation; Motivation; Communication; Confirmation) Provision of feedback to the learner about the impact their actions have had on people and objects around them, and about the completion of an activity.

CDBA National Glossary: Canadian Competency Framework
http://www.cdbanational.com/?page_id=190

Concept development

Reception of information which facilitates the development of concepts. A concept is something conceived in the mind (e.g., thought or notion) and can be:

  • concrete (related to objects or things that are tangible)
  • semi-concrete (related to an action, color, position or something that can be demonstrated but not held in one’s hand)
  •  abstract (including feelings)
CDBA National Glossary: Canadian Competency Framework
http://www.cdbanational.com/?page_id=190

Congenital Deafblindness

Congenital deafblindness is a description applied to people who are born with both hearing and visual loss or who became deafblind before developing symbolic language.

Intervenor Services Human Resources Strategy Glossary of Terms
http://intervenorservices.com/index.php/what-we-do/glossary-of-terms

Deafblindness

Deafblindness is a distinct disability. Deafblindness is a combined loss of hearing and vision to such an extent that neither the hearing nor vision can be used as a means of accessing information to participate and be included in the community.

*Individual Differences in Deafblindness

Individuals who are deafblind are not a homogenous group.  The common factor is a loss of vision and hearing that gives rise to issues over access to information, communication, and mobility.  Because of the diversity within the group, organizations must provide a continuum of intervenor services to meet the unique needs of each individual.

Intervenor Services Human Resources Strategy Glossary of Terms
http://intervenorservices.com/index.php/what-we-do/glossary-of-terms

Deaf Interpreter (DI)

A Deaf interpreter uses American Sign Language, gesture, and/or other communication strategies to facilitate communication between a Deaf consumer, a hearing consumer, and a hearing interpreter.  A Deaf interpreter is a Deaf individual who has native or near-native fluency in American Sign Language, who has interpreting experience, and who has taken specialized training.  

A Deaf interpreter will function as a member of the interpreting team.  A Deaf interpreter may be needed if a Deaf person uses signs that are:  particular to a region or age group, has minimal or limited communication skills, has had their communication hindered or altered because of sickness or injury, or uses non-standard ASL or gestures.

 Intervenor Services Human Resources Strategy Glossary of Terms
http://intervenorservices.com/index.php/what-we-do/glossary-of-terms

Emergent Communicator

An individual who is developing his/her communication.

CDBA National Glossary: Canadian Competency Framework
http://www.cdbanational.com/?page_id=190

Etiology

The cause or origin of a disease or disability.

CDBA National Glossary: Canadian Competency Framework
http://www.cdbanational.com/?page_id=190

Expressive Communication

Expressive communication involves relaying thoughts, ideas or feelings to another person in the individual’s mode of communication.

CDBA National Glossary: Canadian Competency Framework
http://www.cdbanational.com/?page_id=190

Intervenor Services

Intervenor services provide the person who is deafblind with accurate information in an appropriate manner to enable them to make choices, plan future actions, communicate successfully, navigate their environment and achieve as much independence as possible. Intervenor services are responsive to the changing needs of the person who is deafblind.

Intervenor Services Human Resources Strategy Glossary of Terms
http://intervenorservices.com/index.php/what-we-do/glossary-of-terms

Intervenor

“An intervenor…facilitates the interaction of the person who is deafblind with other people and the environment. The intervenor provides information about the environment and what is happening (using receptive language), assists the individual who is deafblind to communicate (using expressive language), provides or develops concepts where necessary, confirms actions, assists with life skills and most importantly, assists the individual to achieve as much independence as possible within their situation. The intervenor takes direction from the individual who is deafblind.”

 Intervenor Services Human Resources Strategy Glossary of Terms
http://intervenorservices.com/index.php/what-we-do/glossary-of-terms

Intervention

The process that allows an individual who is deafblind to receive non- distorted information such that he or she can interact with his or her environment.

CDBA National Glossary: Canadian Competency Framework
http://www.cdbanational.com/?page_id=190

Langue des signes québécoise (LSQ)/Quebec Sign Language

LSQ is a sign language used in Canada and most LSQ users are located in Quebec.  LSQ is a combination of American Sign Language and French Sign Language.

Intervenor Services Human Resources Strategy Glossary of Terms
http://intervenorservices.com/index.php/what-we-do/glossary-of-terms

Large Print

This helps people who have low vision. Large print materials should be prepared with a font (print) size that is 16 to 20 points or larger.

Intervenor Services Human Resources Strategy Glossary of Terms
http://intervenorservices.com/index.php/what-we-do/glossary-of-terms

 Modes of Communication

The imparting of information, thoughts or opinions, using one or more techniques or strategies that compensate for vision and/or hearing that is limited or absent. Examples include tactile signing systems, Braille, large print, communication boards.

CDBA National Glossary: Canadian Competency Framework
http://www.cdbanational.com/?page_id=190

Motivation

(as part of Anticipation; Motivation; Communication; Confirmation) The characteristics of something that make it meaningful and interesting to the learner, who is then willing to respond or take action

Desire to accomplish a goal or participate in an endeavour

CDBA National Glossary: Canadian Competency Framework
http://www.cdbanational.com/?page_id=190

Orientation and Mobility

Orientation: Process through which an individual who is visually impaired uses his/her remaining senses to establish his/her position in space and relationship to all other significant objects in the environment.

Mobility: the ability to navigate from one’s present fixed position to one’s desired position in another part of the environment.

CDBA National Glossary: Canadian Competency Framework
http://www.cdbanational.com/?page_id=190

Orientation and Mobility Specialist

A trained professional who teaches individuals with reduced or no vision the techniques to use environmental information combined with visual, tactual and auditory techniques in order to move about safely, comfortably and confidently. An O&M specialist assesses the individual’s skills and provides personalized instruction.

CDBA National Glossary: Canadian Competency Framework
http://www.cdbanational.com/?page_id=190

Signed Exact English (SEE)

A communication system of visually represented English in a manual form.

Intervenor Services Human Resources Strategy Glossary of Terms
http://intervenorservices.com/index.php/what-we-do/glossary-of-terms

Tangible Symbols

Concrete symbols used as a system of communication. May be whole objects, parts of objects, associated objects, textures, shapes, etc. There is a progression of abstract presentation which can promote receptive and expressive communication with a child/individual.

CDBA National Glossary: Canadian Competency Framework
http://www.cdbanational.com/?page_id=190

Technical Devices

Equipment that helps improve the quality of life and independence of an individual who is deafblind, as well as ensure safety, provide access and assist in communication.

CDBA National Glossary: Canadian Competency Framework
http://www.cdbanational.com/?page_id=190

Total Communication

The philosophy of supporting the right of person who is deafblind, deaf or hard of hearing to communicate in whatever way is most effective. Total communication allows the individual to use all available sensory and communication abilities so he or she will be equipped to decide which method or forms can be used with comfort and confidence.

CDBA National Glossary: Canadian Competency Framework
http://www.cdbanational.com/?page_id=190